Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Seattle King County Homelessness Social Work Essay Essay Seattles homeless population has continued to turn since the execution of Mayor Shells Zero Homelessness Family Pledge. The current economic clime, turning unemployment and other factors will non let the accomplishment of this end at present. In order to successfully battle homelessness, staff recommends implementing schemes based on a public policy model that incorporates employment policy, lodging policy, and schemes designed to maintain people in their places. By concentrating on full employment, low-cost lodging and societal safety cyberspaces such as exigency aid for rent, eviction protection and service centres, the City of Seattle and King County will be able to take preventive steps to halt the turning figure of homeless and make an interrelated networked alliance of concerned citizens and organisations to work to the promotion of this undertaking. We will write a custom essay sample on Seattle King County Homelessness Social Work Essay specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Seattle King County Homelessness Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Seattle King County Homelessness Social Work Essay specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer King County, City of Seattle, and environing organisations are and will be committed to assist the homeless within King County reconstruct their lives by supplying services in the community s clip of demand. Background Summary Mayor Shell s proclamation has raised consciousness and increased community engagement within Seattle. We are committed to the end of stoping homelessness. The City has so put its money where its oral cavity is to turn to turning concerns. In 1998, the City of Seattle spent about $ 7.8 million on services for stateless people, about twice every bit much as it did in 1989 . ( Norton, 2006 ) Many believe Seattle s stateless population is around 9,000 people ( Anonymous, 2009 ) ; and likely 1,000 are kids. Many of the services Seattle has implemented include plans such as exigency shelters, homeless shelters, low-income lodging, and hygiene plans. Other helpful entities include the Community Psychiatric Clinic which provides about 5,000 mentally sick clients with services per twelvemonth. Private shelters, soup kitchens, and nutrient Bankss are portion of the Seattle web to stop homelessness. The Seattle Housing Authority provides merely over 5000 public lodging units which supports around 25,000 occupants. ( Block, B. , 2009 ) Several different plans have played critical functions in a 10 twelvemonth program to stop homelessness. The Committee to End Homelessness in King County made up of representatives from non-profit-making organisations, concern, local authorities, homeless protagonism groups, and the religion community, has developed and adopted the program. The plan besides offers support those who are in danger or on the brink of going homeless. Harmonizing to the King County Office of Human Services safe seaport system, Seattle and King County services provided important aid to upwards of 20,000 persons and non merely the 9,000 homeless who are estimated to be stateless on any given dark. In the 2009 study Hunger and Homelessness in US Cities , it was reported that San Francisco, Charleston, Kansas City, Dallas, Boston, Nashville, and Sacramento observed record-breaking household homelessness additions. Harmonizing to the metropoliss, the current recession, unemployment and foreclosures were the major causes of the increased homelessness. This study displayed 25 % rises in petitions for aid, which is the greatest addition since 1991. Because the metropolis of Seattle has the support of its citizens and has made a committedness to stop homelessness, the demand has non increased every bit much in Seattle as it has in other metropoliss. ( Committee to End Homelessness, 2009 ) Many other metropoliss have implemented ten twelvemonth programs like Seattle s with similar consequences, such as Denver Colorado. Denver has a stateless population of 8,700 people, a similar homeless population as Seattle, and has besides implemented a 10 twelvemonth program. As a whole, they are encouraged by their advancement yet must confront an addition in their homeless populations due to hard economic times. ( Committee to stop Homelessness, 2009 ) Seattle has an of import advantage Denver does non hold, the support of the populace. Seattle electors overpoweringly passed statute law to assist the homelessness population with health care. Some steps passed with every bit much as 70 % of the ballot. ( Rasmussen, T. 2010 ) Homeless Estimates/Identification and Analysis of Problems The City s plans have continued to turn probably because of the troubled economic clime. The One Night Count offers a snapshot of the stateless population: The figure of unsheltered homeless in Seattle is 1,977 is merely over two tierces of the entire unsheltered homeless count in King County. The Committee to End Homelessness in King County states that the Ten-Year Plan to End Homelessness throughout the County has a end to travel people quickly from homelessness to lodging construct the public and political will to stop homelessness, increase the efficiency of the bing systems, and step and study results. ( Committee to End Homelessness, 2009 ) The Ten-Year Plan , has non been successful in its original purposes. Homelessness will non be ended within the 10 twelvemonth timeframe. The plan has, nevertheless, brought the job of homelessness to the attending of citizens. Additionally, the program has allowed Seattle to maintain homelessness at sensible degrees as compared to other metropoliss. although there have been big additions in Seattle s stateless population, we do non see the record-breaking household homelessness additions in Seattle as we do in other metropoliss such as San Francisco, Charleston, Kansas City, Dallas, Boston, Nashville, and Sacramento. In the current system, harmonizing to the Office of Strategic Planning and Performance Management, the figure of homeless in King County is 2,827 ( 2009 One Night Count ) . This is up from 2008 which was 2,681 ( 2008 One Night Count ) . Additionally, the homeless population has continued to turn at a steady gait since 1998. Harmonizing to county records, the figure of homeless was 784 individuals in 1998, which is much less than the stateless population in 2009, which was of 2,827. Harmonizing to the U.S. Conference of Mayors in their 2007 study, Hunger and Homelessness in US Cities , there were three major causes of homelessness in the United States: unemployment, high lodging costs and low rewards. Additionally, Foreclosure to Homelessness 2009: The Forgotten Victims of the Subprime Crisis ( 2009 ) found that in 2009 many people became stateless as a consequence of foreclosures. The City of Seattle had a foreclosure rate of merely less than 1 per centum in 2009, and 11.6 per centum of Seattle s population is below the national poorness line. ( McLean, 2009 ) Again, the recession has caused the figure of participants in homelessness related plans to lift significantly. Harmonizing to Sard, ( 2009 ) and in Center on Budget and Policy Priorities, the figure of stateless households with kids has increased from 20 % 58 % in describing urban countries because of the current recession. The metropolis has been turn toing several of the countries, which experts claim are taking causes of homelessness in US metropoliss. It appears as if Seattle is one of the leaders in controling homelessness compared to other urban countries across the state. Now more than of all time, as the homeless population continues to lift, Seattle must go on to back up services to help them at this clip. Recommendations The United States Department of HYPERLINK hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Department_of_Housing_and_Urban_Development Urban Development and Housing indicates that Seattle is one of seven metropoliss making an astonishing occupation in efficaciously cut downing its homeless population. They are making this by utilizing aggressive plans and support. As antecedently discussed, forestalling new people from going homeless is built-in to cut downing the metropolis s homeless. Because the hapless economic system is one of the prima causes of homelessness, shelters should increase employment services for persons, in add-on to other metropolis attempts. It is recommended that Seattle continue its current attempts while implementing more aggressive fiscal support and by go oning to suggest aggressive ends for stoping homelessness. The metropolis should see back uping more aggressive preventive steps for maintaining people in their places, better bing stateless shelter substructure, implementing employment policy for the homeless, and by enrolling new community leaders and by farther organizing attempts with those leaders. Harmonizing to Lindblom, ( 1991 ) one of the most of import arms to battling homelessness is to halt homelessness at its beginning, by funding bar schemes. This includes stopping evictions, work outing notice jobs, supplying hard currency progress plans, and maintaining people in shared lodging. Financially it is much more cost effectual to implement pre-emptive agencies than to seek and assist people once they already homeless. Another scheme is to increase the incomes of highly hapless. By increasing the incomes of those in danger of fring their places, we can assist them maintain themselves sheltered. The City s unemployment rate rose from 4 per centum in 1998 to about 8.2 per centum in 2009. ( Anonymous, 2009 ) In future old ages, plans will necessitate to be reevaluated based on economic and employment conditions. In the current clime, it is recommended that the metropolis foremost offer more exigency and transitional services for the turning figure of homeless. Additionally, we need to offer more subsidised lodging, more employment chances, more lasting supportive lodging for persons with disablements, prevent evictions, work out notice jobs, supply hard currency progress plans, and maintain people in shared lodging. The current web of services is a solid foundation for assailing the job of homelessness in Seattle. Current Network of Services Seattle included the undermentioned plans in the 2009 budget in an attempt to battle homelessness: Impermanent Shelter The metropolis provides impermanent shelter plans which offers receivers instance direction and a topographic point to kip. The end of the impermanent shelter is to assist receivers transition to stable long-run lodging. Funding varies from twelvemonth to twelvemonth. In 2008 $ 6 million was allocated to the plan and in 2009 the figure increased to $ 7.1 million. Impermanent Shelters are an built-in portion of maintaining persons off the street and doing the passage to permanent lodging which, as antecedently stated is an of import constituent for stoping homelessness. ( King County Department of Community and Human Services, 2009 ) . Service Centers Several centres provided by the metropolis offer citizens laundry service and showers. In add-on service centres are able to mention them to lodging and health care services. These centres frequently provide reding, employment referrals, hot repasts, and a topographic point to hive away properties. 2008 saw $ 2.6 million distributed to these service centres. In 2009 that figure increased to $ 3.8 million. Service centres support those who are drastically affected by the economic system, once more, a taking cause of homelessness. ( King County Department of Community and Human Services, 2009 ) . Transitional Housing Transitional lodging helps persons take the first stairss towards long-run lodging. The plan aims to hold citizens in new lodging within two old ages of come ining the plan. The plan offers reding, employment, instruction, life accomplishments preparation, health care, child care, transit, lodging and other services to assist people make the Eventual passage to longer-term lodging. Funding for this plan has increased to $ 5.8 million in 2009 from $ 1 million in 2008. Transitional lodging seeks to bridge the employment and instruction spread which causes so many to be stateless. ( King County Department of Community and Human Services, 2009 ) . Eviction Prevention Because the metropolis s end is the riddance of homelessness, eviction bar is another of import metropolis service provided. Persons at high hazard for eviction and in federally subsidized lodging are offered authorities services such as instance direction, making programs to forestall eviction services to stabilise lodging and maintain persons off the street. 2008 saw $ 1 million budgeted for this plan. In 2009 this figure rose to $ 2.7 million. By maintaining persons from going homeless, we greatly increase our ability to cut the figure of people in demand of homeless services. ( King County Department of Community and Human Services, 2009 ) . Rent Aid The metropolis has two rent aid plans which help forestall homelessness by assisting persons in danger of falling short on their rent payments. $ 728,197 was distributed in 2008, while $ 554,129 was distributed in 2009 for this plan. Similar to eviction bar, by maintaining persons from going homeless, we greatly increase our ability to cut the figure of people in demand of homeless services. ( King County Department of Community and Human Services, 2009 ) . Emergency Rent Assistance Around 515 low-income families receive exigency rent aid each twelvemonth. Both, a long-run, and short-run plan are available. ( King County Department of Community and Human Services, 2009 ) . The 2009/2010 budget includes: The entire 2010 budget for the Department of Health and Human Services is $ 146,778,456. Of that figure, $ 28,377,592 is allocated for plans specifically designed to stop homelessness. ( City of Seattle 2010 Proposed Budget, 2009 ) . The chief resources for these undertakings come from assorted grants. These grants include direct federal grants, private income beginnings, and general bomber fund support. There are revenue enhancement parts which besides provide a limited beginning of support. The plans rely on the continued support of not-for-profits and private industry. Additionally, grants pay for a big part of these plans. ( Tokuda, K, 2009 ) . The budget has $ 2.5 million for homeless services and lodging including: 70 new shelter beds for persons relocated from campsites, hotel/motel verifiers to help 10 stateless households to acquire off the street, installation support for the new First Methodist Church shelter ; expanded twenty-four hours and hygiene services and instance direction services for inveterate stateless persons in business district Seattle ; support services for over 100 stateless persons populating in Housing-first units ; capital support for an extra 32 units of lodging units for stateless persons. The City of Seattle has been having federal support through the McKinney Grant ; about $ 10 million in 2009 ( City of Seattle 2010 Proposed Budget, 2009 ) . Seattle receives one of the largest McKinney awards each twelvemonth ( Norton, 2006 ) . The City Council besides added increased eviction bar support of $ 50,000 in both 2009 and 2010 ( Johnson, J. et all, 2009 ) . City of Seattle Budget: 2007 2008 2009 2010 Community Facilities 1,163,637 674,626 729,843 752,263 2007 2008 2009 2010 Emergency and Transitional Services 19,505,082 21,990,995 27,461,399 27,625,329 ( Johnson, J. et all, 2009 ) Policy Plan Further Aims Support preventive steps: Keep people in their places by fostering rent aid plans and eviction protection. Improve and spread out low cost lodging to better affordability, as mentioned, one of the prima causes of homelessness. Provide employment policy by quickly associating them with employment and/or benefits. Again, the fiscal crisis is one of the major grounds for homelessness. If we can acquire people into occupations the homeless population should diminish. Any building should be assorted usage in nature as the homeless population is likely to cyclically alter. As discussed, homelessness is that one of the highest points in recent memory. Because of this installation should be created which support the stateless population now, and can be used for community events in the hereafter. Coordinating community outreach will enable more people to entree the web of services provided. Provide lodging for those being discharged from public establishments ( infirmaries, prisons, gaols, mental wellness installations ) . A big figure of homeless is released from these establishments with no other support. Further coordination of attempt with them could better our ability to command the section of the stateless population. Recruit new community leaders and farther co-ordinate attempts. Reduce the figure of homeless by 30 % in the following 2 old ages. In order to make our ends we must get down by offering more subsidised lodging, more employment chances, more lasting supportive lodging for persons with disablements, prevent evictions, work out notice jobs, supply hard currency progress plans, and maintain people in shared lodging. First, strongly back uping preventive steps should be at the head of metropolis thought. Second, bettering impermanent lodging to assist extinguish the on the street stateless population is a necessary following measure. Working within the10 twelvemonth program of Seattle, it is non unreasonable to see the stateless population bead by 30 % in the following two old ages. As the economic system begins to settle, the metropolis should reassess the economic clime and alter our ends. In order to be successful, claims Toepfer, ( 2000 ) schemes to battle homelessness should be based on public policy models which combine employment and lodging policy, and supports societal safety cyberspaces including lodging allowances. The manner we will accomplish these ends will be by first, guaranting the metropolis has the needed lodging substructure it needs to back up and care for the stateless population. As people enter and issue homelessness we need to do the continuance of homelessness every bit short as possible. With the needed substructure, force per unit area will be taken away of other public bureaus such as exigency response squads, infirmaries, jurisprudence enforcement, gaols, and mental wellness installations to supply excess services caused by deficiency of basic human demands. Following, we must guarantee that anyone with merely one household income makes more than minimal pay in support. Harmonizing to Dolbeare ( 1999 ) , no one doing minimal pay in the United States can afford a one sleeping room flat based on the federal criterion of affordability. A full-time worker must gain at least $ 11.08/hour to afford a rental unit with two sleeping rooms. Servicess must be provided non merely for the jobless but besides for those whose income does non let them to pay for their ain lodging. Harmonizing to the National Alliance to End Homelessness, a rapid nexus to lodging is an of import portion of outreach to the homeless community. The agreement must necessitate low demands on receivers, doing stateless people feel safe and secure. This besides helps with persons enduring from hapless physical and mental wellness. When people feel safe, they are more likely to take part in intervention and engage in the procedure of happening new lodging. With the continued focal point on employment, low-cost lodging and societal safety cyberspaces such as exigency rent aid, eviction protection and service centres will be will to take preventive steps to halt the turning figure of homeless. On average the chronic homeless individual uses $ 40,000 worth of services per twelvemonth. ( Incorporate Council on Homelessness, 2009 ) The New York Coalition for the Homeless estimates that the cost of for good lodging a inveterate stateless individual can be every bit small as $ 12,500 per twelvemonth instead than $ 40,000, presuming they are housed. The 150,000 inveterate stateless people in the United States cost $ 10.95 billion per twelvemonth in public financess. If these persons were all for good housed, the disbursal would be expected to fall to $ 7.88 billion. The social benefit of $ 40,000 worth of services for persons dropping to $ 12,500 per inveterate stateless individual warrants the $ 5,000,000 addition in our budget. ( Forbes, 2009 ) There are presently a sum of 253 service suppliers which target primary populations i.e. households, unattached young person, immature grownups, and grownups. Nonprofit organisations, concern, local authorities, homeless protagonism groups, other authorities sections, and the religion community offer the anchor of the community s web of suppliers. ( Johnson, J. et. all, 2009 ) It should be the end of our plan to supply a minimal criterion of life for all individuals in the metropolis. As public retainers it is our occupation to ease this in whatever manner we can. We should besides seek to restrict turnover in staff which work straight with the homeless, as informations suggests staff acquaintance will better plan success. ( Anonymous 2009 ) Execution Budget Staff proposes the current budget be approved with additions in all service countries and enlargement of financess for lodging, a $ 5,000,000 addition. These additions can be justified as other metropolis sections will hold fewer loads as a consequence of the added financess to homelessness ( infirmaries, prisons, gaols, mental wellness installations ) . Changes to the budget will include increasing exigency rent aid, eviction protection, employment plans, and increase in low cost lodging, half-way lodging, income supplementation and community outreach. Money from transitional lodging and services will be used to pay for these additions. This will be a $ 5 million displacement in financess and a $ 5 million addition of financess. Changes will, better substructure, prevent persons and households from fring their places or flats, and offer low-demand lodging for a safe topographic point to have intervention. In the short term, the budget allotment for exigency and transitional services will offer the homeless population immediate aid. Our proposed budget is listed below: Homeless Budget 2010 New 2010 Proposed Community Facilities 2,000,000 Emergency and Transitional Services 25,000,000 Outreach 1,000,000 Employment Stimulation 3,000,000 Emergency Income Supplementation 1,500,000 Entire: 32,000,000 28,377,592 At the terminal of the twelvemonth, reevaluate the province of Seattle s homelessness and increase the budget in countries of demand. Budgetary alterations should be determined by the success of plans this twelvemonth. Likely, an across the board addition of 5-10 % to current services will be appropriate, depending on the strength of the economic system. Further Avocation for the Budget Given the current economic times, this is the minute to guarantee a roof over every caput. As antecedently stated, more than $ 25,000 worth of public services can be saved per twelvemonth for each inveterate stateless individual housed. This is the ground for the proposed addition in community installations. Based on the current cost to the City, $ 3,257 per individual ( $ 28,377,592 ( 2010 proposed budget ) / 8712 ( on the street stateless population ) = $ 3,257 ) it would drastically better the state of affairs of the on the street stateless population and subsidise more low income lodging than the metropolis s proposed budget. The homeless job will go on to turn for the following few old ages because of the hard economic times and the budget addition will guarantee the City is prepared. We still need the continued support of local concerns, community members and faith-based every bit good as non religion based organisations to go on the success of metropolis plans. Community outreach plans will supply a medium for people to donate clip and aid within the community, taking a interest in their vicinity and City. Seattle has the beginnings of substructure and community support in topographic point to do important paces in stoping homelessness. We will all profit from theses budget add-ons. Additionally, focal point groups will be set up in communities around Seattle. These groups will roll up information and gage the support of local citizens. Hospitals, gaols, mental wellness establishments, and other installations overburdened as a consequence of homelessness will besides be contacted to analyze forms of discharge and be given whatever support we can offer. Current grosss are deficient for run intoing the homeless population s demands. Hospitals, prisons, gaols and mental wellness installations are overburdened and no longer supplying the original service for which they were intended. An equal investing in homelessness now will ensue in a more humane, safe, and in fiscal matters sound hereafter. In these economically disputing times it is our occupation as civil retainers to supply for those who need it most in their clip of demand. The budget is a political papers which reflects our moral precedences. As Samuel Johnson said in Boswell: Life of Johnson, A nice proviso for the hapless is the true trial of civilisation. It is clip we stand up for the rights of all people in our society and put an terminal to the excess taxpayer disbursement that chronic homelessness causes. Decision The Mayor s pledge has left The City of Seattle with the beginning substructure it needs to make zero homelessness. The citizens, faith-based and non-faith based organisations and the City of Seattle have created a favourable clime for alteration. Our metropolis is resilient, compassionate and has all the tools needed to do homelessness in Seattle a thing of the yesteryear. The City is taking the manner, demoing the remainder of the United States what needs to be done to battle this societal ill. Seattle has one of the most progressive and quality plans for controling homelessness in the state. We must non halt here nevertheless. Our job has grown due to issues in the lodging market, and economic clime. This is the clip to put in our community. We have the chance to assist so many people. If we invest decently now, we make major advancement toward Mayor Shell s Zero Homelessness Pledge.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Rosalind Franklin Treated Unfairly Francis Crick amp; James D. Watson Ã¢â¬ ¢Franklin was beaten to publication Of DNA structure by Crick and Watson Ã¢â¬ ¢Crick amp; Watson were awarded the nobel prize in Physiology or medicine in 1962 Ã¢â¬ ¢Behind the story of Watson amp; Crick unfairness towards Rosalind Franklin. Early Years Rosalind Elsie Franklin was born on July, 25, 1920. She grew up in Notting Hill London. Rosalind was the fifth child out of four in her family. Along with Rosalind parents Ellis Aurthur Franklin a Merchant Banker and her mother Murie Frances Waley. While growing up Franklin showed nothing more but her scholastic abilities especially at St PaulÃ¢â¬â¢s Girls School where she succeed in science Latin and sports. The Two Men who benefited from her work without giving her credit. Controversy Franklin fought an uphill battle as a scientist. Her partner Maurice Wilkins treated her as an assistant instead of his equal partner. We will write a custom essay sample on Rosalind Franklin Treated Unfairly or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Regardless, she continued her research of DNA. Franklin photograph DNA using X-Rays. Wilkins found Franklin picture and showed it to Watson. From the picture, Watson was able to figure out the DNA molecule structure. He then published the results in a scienific journal. As a result, Watson amp; Crick received credit for discovering the DNA molecule,even though their discovery was based on Franklin private photo. In 1962 Watson and Crick were awarded the Noble Prize but Franklin was not. Caption describing picture or graphic. Her Death and Legacy In 1956 Franklin discover that she had two cancerous tumors in her abdomen. Rosalind Franklin underwent two years of treatment, but tragically died from it on April 16 1958. Franklin work with DNA lead to the ultimate discovery of the DNA structure and forever change the way we now understand the make up of the human body. Even though Franklin did not receive recognition during her life time, she is widely accepted as a DNA pioneer. Caption describing picture or graphic. Christmas 2004 ? Volume 1, Issue 1 ? Your FamilyÃ¢â¬â¢s Name ? (242) 555-0193 Page 2 A special message from our family Our Family Address line 1 Address line 2 City, ST ZIP Code Phone: (242) 555-0167 Fax: (242) 555-0168 E-Mail: [emailprotected] com Web Site: www. widgets. msn. com Our kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ favorite Christmas joke: What do you call a person who is afraid of Santa Claus? Claustrophobic! On the back of your familyÃ¢â¬â¢s newsletter, you may want to add a simple greeting, poem, or an example of your childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s artwork. This is the first part of the newsletter that your loved ones will see, so make sure that it is festive and eye-catching. You can add your own artwork to th e back of a family newsletter by scanning in a drawing or a photograph. SeasonÃ¢â¬â¢s greetings! A great way to add content to this newsletter is to include a calendar of upcoming events or a special memory that your family shares. You can also transcribe the words of a song or a poem onto the back of your newsletter to set the tone for the rest of your message. With a little creativity and imagination, creating a holiday newsletter can be a great way to say Ã¢â¬Å"SeasonÃ¢â¬â¢s Greetings! Ã¢â¬ A favorite family phrase or slogan can go here. Our FamilyÃ¢â¬â¢s Name Address line 1 Address line 2 City, ST ZIP Code FriendÃ¢â¬â¢s Name Street Address City, State Zip Code
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Rip Mix Burn Steal essays After a dramatic federal court ruling that has shut Napster down, will have an effect on sharing music files on the internet. Napster has been one of the hottest sites on the internet in the last eighteen months, with more than fifty million users. Napster allows anyone with a CD burner to and a modem to download free music and burn it to a CD. The main purpose or as it seems, is to avoid the cost of new CDs. But some argue that it has different uses. Some musicians say that it allows them to get their music out to the public by avoiding the record companies. Others say they use it to hear a groups music before they buy their CD. While others say that it is stealing. That it keeps musicians from making money off of their music. Which also keeps record companies from making money. Plus, it also takes sales away from record stores. The recording industry could do one of two things: First, Succeed in killing off Napster. But with the Sons of Napster popping up all over the place, and with the music industry always one step behind the nineteen-year old software designers creating the new peer-to-peer programs like: Gnutella, Aimster, LimeWire, BearShare, Audiogalaxy Satellite, and Morpheus. Although none of these have achieved the success of Napster they are collectively approaching its popularity. Second, it could go online and start to offer its own music services. The moment if went after Napster it should have offered its own online services at a reasonable price, but it didnt and now they have to deal with a large amount of copy-cat music-sharing programs. The industry also wants users to rent songs. Users would pay a monthly fee and get access to the music. Once they stopped paying the fee the music would stop. The recording companies will ultimately have only one thing to offer-public relations s ervices to promote artists off-line. ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Management Decision Making - Essay Example Unfortunately, many of the other employees donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel the same. Some have even threatened to resign if the management doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t do something about Jack. Roger is concerned that production might be affected either way. Serious consequences can occur if he releases Jack and the same might be true if he retains him at work. The opportunity cost seems the same either way. Roger is concerned that they will lose a valuable member of the team if he releases or transfers Jack, but he is also concerned that they will lose quantity and be piled with workloads if Jack is allowed to stay without any change in his attitude towards work and other people. Although coaching has helped with the frequency of his complaints, there are still others who complain about him. The situation can be summarized as thus: Ã¢â¬Å"Coming to a decision of what to do with Jack such that it will come to a win-win situation for Jack, the company, and the other employees.Ã¢â¬ This can be viewed as follows. A parent is desperately looking for a way to reconcile her two children. They fight most of the time about seemingly unimportant matters. The older one often complains that the younger child seems to be wasting too much time playing with his toys rather than helping with the chores at home. The parent does understand the older childÃ¢â¬â¢s concern. There is work to be done at home and an extra pair of hands can definitely help. However, she also noticed that the younger child seems to have a talent for storytelling and she wants him to develop it. Obviously, the parent cannot choose between her two children that easily, nor can she simply let go of one of them. But there must be reconciliation if there is to be peace within the household. The plan is to bring the two into some sort of agreement so that there will be no more arguments. A win-win situation is also necessary, not simply preferred, because the parent cannot lose any of her two children. In this case, both
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Foreign Direct Investment and Its Impact on Economy and Ecological Issues - Essay Example In addition to this, the review of this impact on economic state of affairs in developing countries also considers the negative and positive impacts of foreign direct investment. Apart from this, the report also discusses how foreign direct investment influences ecological and environmental issues and takes into consideration the particular kind(s) of foreign direct investment which gives rise to such ecological and environmental issues. Before going into details of these issues, it is pertinent to understand what foreign direct investment means (Fedderke and Romm; Chakraborty and Nunnenkamp). Foreign Direct Investment Foreign direct investment refers to the investment or investments made by a corporate entity or investment institution, which operates in one country, in another corporate entity or investment institution which operates or is based in another country. In other words, foreign direct investment is an investment which comes in a country from another country directly. It i s pertinent to distinguish between foreign direct investment and those investments which are indirect, as for instance, investments made by corporate entities from foreign countries in the equity of corporate entity or entities operating in the country. ... oreign direct investment has been regarded by a number of researchers in the past as having a positive impact on the economic development of countries, where such investment takes place. An instant evidence in this regard can be put forward as an example of Chinese economy; China has been reported by the United Nations as the largest receiver of foreign direct investment in the first 6 months period of previous year 2012. The total amount of foreign direct investment received by China in initial six months of year 2012 was $ 59.1 billion, which surpassed foreign direct investment received by United States in the same period by $ 1.7 billion. This information can be directly related with the unmatched economic development which has taken place in the past few decades in China (Reuters). Since after the end of World War 2, foreign direct investment has played an important role in generating significant amounts of financial support for the developing countries. However, the flow of fore ign direct investment halted after 1970 as there was an increase in the flow of investment from foreign countries in developing countries and the financial institutions particularly commercial lending institutions found their role as diminishing. However, after certain regulatory measures were taken by the bodies and respective authorities in the developing world, foreign direct investment was again allowed to gain momentum in the mid of 90s (Vo). Upon reviewing the theoretical propositions related to the impact of foreign direct investment on economic growth, it is found that there are differing views in this respect. According to the neo-liberal school of thought, foreign direct investment has a positive and direct relation with the economic development of a region. In light of this
Sunday, November 17, 2019
The Influence of Gender and Age on the Second Language Acquisition of University Students in South Korea - Research Paper Example It is so important that some companies and industries like healthcare include English proficiency among their requirements (Lorenzo, 2007). Moreover, many families travel abroad for several reasons, and this may require that they speak the language of the country they are in other than their native language (Gordon, 2000). Like learning a native language, secondary language acquisition is influenced by a variety of factors and outcomes may vary depending on the leaning style of the student, age, gender, and even culture. Similar to secondary language acquisition, learning style is influenced by age and gender. Learning style is defined as a persons personal choice of the way or method on how he can best gather data, process it, and put it to later use in terms of concrete experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation. It was suggested by Kolb (1976) that an individual learner has particular strengths with related to his particular learning style. Moreover, the term refers to the individual differences in approaches to learning based on preferences. It pertains to the ways in which an individual characteristically acquires, retains, and retrieves information (Felder and Henriques, 1995). A study conducted by Ramayah, Sivanandan, Nasrijal, Letchumanan, and Leong (2009) explored the relationship between learning style and gender among business students. The study used a questionnaire to collect and gather data, and classified the participants using VARK (Visual, Auditory, Read/Write, and Kinesthetic) by Fleming. A convenience sampling method was used to ensure that an adequate number of samples are able to participate. The results indicate that there is a significant difference between their learning styles in terms of gender, with female participants highly preferring a visual or auditory learning style than male participants.
Friday, November 15, 2019
An Analysis of the Semiconductor Industry The semiconductor industry began when the first transistor was built in 1947 by Bell Labs. This first use was as a hearing aid. In 1971 Intel introduces microprocessors which are the brains of the computer onto one chip for the first time. Then in 2005 the semiconductor industry reaches sales of $227 Billion dollars (SIA. 2011). In 2010 the sales were about $300 Billion dollars. The growth of the semiconductor industry has been tremendous. Semiconductors are everywhere. They are used in computers, electronics, telecommunication, industrial machines, transportation, wireless systems, medical, and military. The semiconductor industry is spread out internationally. There are major manufactures in the United States, China, Japan, South Korea, and Europe. You can see the scope and geography of the semiconductor industry is immense and meets us at nearly every aspect of our lives. Its hard to comprehend how much of an impact this industry has made on the way we interact with one another on a regular basis. Semiconductors can do several things. In general, semiconductors process and display information, handle power, store data, condition signals, and alternate between light and electrical energy sources (PPRC, 2008). These processes are unseen but very present in areas mentioned in the above paragraph. The top three semiconductor producers as ranked by isupply.com are Intel, Samsung Electronics, and Toshiba. Intel and Samsung Electronics are set apart from all the others in terms of revenues as you will be able to see in a graph representing this data within the five forces framework section of the report. This industry is very competitive. As technology changes consistently, industry competitors fight to bring the latest and greatest products to market. The semiconductor industry is well known for their innovations and volatile environment. The Industry structure Supply chain End products G-STEP Global In the 1980s, Asia was primarily a place for low-cost semiconductor assembly and low-end consumer electronic product sales. Today, the region not only leads in electronic equipment production-from low-end to advanced products-but it is also a significant consumer of sophisticated electronics. China is now the largest market for cellular handsets, representing 20 percent of demand, and the second largest market for personal computers. South Korea has the most advanced nationwide cellular network in the world. The electronic equipment and semiconductor industries have evolved into a truly global market. Sociocultural Demographic Children have started getting exposed to electronic devices at a much younger age, than ever before. The electronic device manufacturers, also, use the technology to create things targeted towards children as young as 2-3 years old. This indicates that the market for these devices is continually increasing, hence, higher use of semiconductors. Another trend that we see is people switching to smartphones, which again use comparatively more semiconductors that their current phones. In companies, increasing use of cloud computing to store data also helps the sales of semiconductors go up. In general our lifestyle is changing to a world where we use a lot of semiconductors. (Rephrase the last statement) Efficiency will drive the industry. Lower power consumption wins!Ã doent really matter, its a very global industry. And everyone uses it. The workplace is already filled with people of different ethnicities. (What can I say about it?) (Read income distribution again!) Technological The semiconductor industry is heavily driven by the technological advancements in the products, processes and materials within the semiconductor domain. It is the technological upgrade rate that makes the industry highly cyclic. The industry is constantly striving for low cost, high speed, energy efficient and smaller chips. The technological upgrades are a prime reason for the barriers to entry in the fab segment of the industry, as the change of the fabrication process is a very expensive affair. But since then our public investment levels have been dropping. In 2011, federal investment in research and development has dropped below 1% of GDP. (http://www.scienceprogress.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/SciProgResearchandDevelopment-101.pdf) (Page 3 graph) With the emergence of associations like SEMATECH, SEMI and SIA some of the burden was taken off of the individual companies. Intellectual property is now much more perishable than ever before and there are too many challenges to solve alone. We must recognize that alliances in the early stages of technological innovation are imperative to achieving breakthrough results that will deliver against the top and bottom line. John Warlaumont, VP of Advanced Technolog http://www.sematech.org/corporate/annual/annual09.pdf In theÃâÃ semiconductor industry, for example, a confluence of cost, technology and demand trends is creating a shakeout in manufacturing. Indeed, the fixed costs and minimum scale associated with building a new chip fabrication plant have risen almost as precipitously as unit costs (under Moores Law) have fallen. As a result, few companies can still make the next leap to fabs costing $4 billion apiece. This has created a new set of fabless semiconductor companies, along with the foundries, which focus on manufacturing chips designed by others. Semiconductor companies will need to carefully weigh their strategy. http://www.bain.com/bainweb/consulting_expertise/industries_detail.asp?indID=14 Economic The economy of the country has an indirect impact on this industry. As the economy does poor the wages go lower, unemployment increases. This in turn affects the sales of electronic goods in which these semiconductors are used. However, if the economic health of the country is good, the industry is rewarded. The projected growth in the industry from 2011 2013 seems to be about 10.5%. (http://www.bharatbook.com/detail.asp?id=87078rt=Semiconductor-Industry-Forecast-to-2012.html). During the past recession the wages of the Silicon Valley tech workers dropped down by 10%. (http://www.ecademy.com/node.php?id=157950) Political/Legal In the past five years, information technology, fueled by faster and cheaper chips, has reduced the U.S. inflation rate significantly and has doubled the nations productivity growth rate. http://www.sia-online.org/cs/about_sia Semiconductor design and manufacturing facilities are strategic to our nations economic growth. However, our industry is faced with fierce global competition and our policymakers and regulators must ensure that we have balanced tax, regulatory and trade policies to allow our industry to continue to flourish in the U.S. and remain Americas largest export industry, Brian Toohey, President SIA concluded in 2010. http://www.sia-online.org/cs/papers_publications/press_release_detail?pressrelease.id=1869 The president of SIA proposed a RD tax credit for the US companies. This is in the favor of the industry, as they can spend more money in RD. (Recent paper 17th news) Industry analysis Financial Performance Based on the U.S. semiconductor companies revenues and net incomes 2007 2010 (Figures A,B,;;) the profit margins in the industry generally low. Some companies like AMD and Freescale were making losses even in 2007 before the recession hit. The three biggest U.S. semiconductor suppliers, Intel, Texas Instruments and Qualcomm, have been profitable during all the last four years. The smaller companies by revenue have clearly had worse financial performance. That suggest that the bigger players would have some advantage. Of the top three companies Intel is integrated device manufacturer wheras Texas Instruments (Not Fabless IBM REPORT) and Qualcomm are fabless companies (see Strategic Groups section). There is no clear evidence that one of the strategies would be better than the other based on the recent financial performance. Figure XXX. Top 9 U.S. Semiconductor Companies Revenues and Net Incomes 2007. Data from WRDS COMPUSTAT. Figure XXX. Top 9 U.S. Semiconductor Companies Revenues and Net Incomes 2008. Data from WRDS COMPUSTAT. Figure XXX. Top 9 U.S. Semiconductor Companies Revenues and Net Incomes 2009. Data from WRDS COMPUSTAT. Figure XXX. Top 9 U.S. Semiconductor Companies Revenues and Net Incomes 2010. Data from WRDS COMPUSTAT. The annual data for the rest of the 9 companies is not currently available. Market Shares The Top 20 Semiconductor industry players had a combined 65.2 % market share in 2010 (Figure XXX). The semiconductor industry overall is very fragmented, especially the product development. However, the amount of cutting edge technology chip manufacturers seems to be decreasing. Globally American companies hold about half of the market share. Japan and Asia-Pacific companies have about 20 % each and the rest is EMEA companies. Semiconductor business is a very global business. The importance of Asia-Pacific region has been increasing during the recent years. Figure XXX. Preliminary Estimate Semiconductor Suppliers Revenue Share % 2010. Data from iSuppli (Ford, 2011) Figure XXX. Preliminary Estimate of Global Semiconductor Revenue Share % 2010 by Headquarters Location. Data from iSuppli (Ford, 2011) Porters Five forces Threat of New Entrants Traditionally, because of the huge capital expenditures for startup, it is very difficult for those new entries to be successfully invading the semiconductor industry. Obviously, it is great news for those large companies who can control the market in their favor by using their economies of scale. Besides, the pointed end research and development are other two indispensable barriers for new entries. (Ciolli, 2011)However, recently, with the evolvement of the industry, smaller players could move their attention from manufacturing to research and development. Benefit from the subcontracting of manufacturing, smaller companies has more resources and capital to invest into research of new technologies. The cooperation of subcontracting eased the financial burden of the smaller players and reduced the barrier of semiconductor industry to them. (Investopedia, 2011) This is extremely significant for those smaller entrepreneurial corporations even for the whole structure of the semiconductor industry. Moreover, except the high technology requirement for new entry, another significant barrier to entry the semiconductor market is the software compatibility. As a powerful semiconductor player, they are required to not only create physical technology, but also need to design convenient and compatible software which could collaborate with their processors well so customers could enjoy their product. ? What is the source for this paragraph? Power of Suppliers In terms of large semiconductor companies, they have inherent advantages when choose suppliers from thousands of them (Investopedia, 2011). The large diversified companies usually use enough number of suppliers to minimize the power of each. However, in the specialized semiconductor industry, in which the fabless manufacturing model is used by most of the companies. As a result, fabless companies play an important role in this specialized sector. Besides, not every sub-contractor has the capability to satisfied the needs of the specialized companies, so suppliers are much powerful than those in the large generic semiconductor sector (Ciolli, 2011). There are several supplier groups present to the semiconductor industry. A few of those groups are; capital equipment makers, suppliers of silicon, chemicals, gases, water, energy, metals and other materials are used in manufacturing semiconductor products (PPRC, 2008). Rivalry Among Industry Players The semiconductor industry is very highly competitive. The firms within this industry compete on a daily basis to produce or manufacture a product that is smaller, faster and cheaper. The industry changes rapidly as technology changes rapidly. This keeps it competitive as each competitor can seek and opportunity to create something great before the others do. Within this competitive industry there is a constant pressure to come up with better products. The products of this industry are much undifferentiated as the products they are trying to create are essentially improvements to similar products that already exist. The accomplishments of the products change very little. The methods of production is where can see differentiation. The players are trying to come up with innovative ways to do the same things only in a smaller, faster, and cheaper manner (Investopedia, 2010). Comment by Joona: I disagree with this paragraph to some extent. For example ARM has gained very much competitive advantage with is mobile chip technology, similarly Intel has been the number one in the laptop microprocessors becaus of superior product performance The result of an industry that is this competitive is emerging technology that is cutting-edge. The technology is constantly changing into something better so for competition it makes it hard to remain at the top. What tends to happen in this type of an industry is that there are several industry players with similar size rise as the larger players. This is because no one player can keep excelling with the newest, fastest, and cheapest product available. The four main products of the semiconductor industry are memory chips, microprocessors, commodity integrated circuit, and complex SOC (system on a chip) which is a combination of a system of semiconductors compacted into one small product. The following are the top ten ranked semiconductor industry leaders as of 2010: Intel, Samsung Electronics, Toshiba Semiconductors, Texas Instruments, Renesas Electronics, Hynix, STMicroelectronics, Micron Technology, Qualcomm, and Elpida Memory (Ford, 2010). The graph below shows how these competitors are doing against each other in terms of revenue. It gives a basic understanding how they sit against each other and who are the major players. Figure XXX. Top 20 Semiconductor Suppliers Revenues 2010. Data from iSuppli (Ford, 2011). Power of buyers The buyers of the semiconductor industry are endless. There is a buyer at literally every corner. The switching costs of the buyers in the commodity semiconductor market is small as they can purchase from any semiconductor industry player who is representing the lowest cost available as long as the technology is compatible. The strong role of the industry giants like Intel and Samsung limits the bargaining power of buyers. Computers are definitely the largest piece of demand presented by the buyers in 2011, although it is declining due to the rising sales of smart phones and media tablets (Mutschle, 2011). Buyers in the semiconductor tend to be very price sensitive as the industry is constantly producing products at a lower cost to push the demand of their product. Within the buyers, there are several buyer groups that should be mentioned. The computer industry takes of the bulk of buyer demand, mobile devices and tabloids, and the medical industry to mention a few. These buyers make purchases from the semiconductor industry to continue in daily operations as they are a large part of ongoing business. Joona: This sentence needs clarification. Threat of substitutes The industry has the ability to change in a very short time. This takes away opportunities from substitutes to enter the market segment. It would not take the semiconductor industry very long to respond to a successful substitute as they would find a way to produce the product themselves. The problem that would be present is the money constraint. It can be done but at a cost. The industry players can find themselves spending a lot of money to research and develop new products just to find that their competition beat them to it by a few months. This keeps the business environment volatile and competitive. Joona: This paragraph would need some sources to back the claims up. In addition I found it hard to understand some of the logic. Strategic groups Joona: This is one way to classify the industry. I dont know if it is necessarily the best way to do it. Product line based classification is at least one alternative, but it requires some effort. Groups Based on Level of Vertical Integration Integrated Device Manufacturers (IDM) Some companies, such as IBM and Intel, have both semiconductor design and manufacturing capability. They try to achieve efficiency through vertical integration. Foundry Companies Merchant manufacturers do manufacturing for companies that do not have own manufacturing capacity. Cutting edge semiconductor manufacturing process technology is getting more and more expensive, and thus less and less companies can afford to have own production capacity (Jelinek, 2010). The largest foundry company is Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC). It is a pure play foundry, which means that it only offers manufacturing services without designing own products. Fabless The fabless companies do not have manufacturing capacity. They design chips and buy manufacturing capacity from foundry companies. The fabless companies do not have as large risks relating to manufacturing technology, but as the amount foundry companies decreases, the foundry companies bargaining power will likely increase. This group includes companies like Qualcomm, AMD, Nvidia, Broadcom and MediaTek (Osborne, 2010). Key Success Factors What would it take for some firm to compete successfully in the industry(9) Joona (these guesses are just out of my head, no sources, no proof of validity): Ability to constantly develop new, better, cheaper faster designs Ability to produce breakthrough innovations Ability to form effective networks and partnerships in order to gain advantage of the resources of the collaborating companies New opportunities and threats What are the major emerging trends in the industry that may impact the industry firms in a significant way?(8) The New Threats and Opportunities The most critical treat for semiconductors industry is the rapid price declines due to more player enter the market and the substitute products become available. (Joona: Are new players really a threat given the resources and money needed to enter the industry?) The research by Ross Seymore (A Deutsche Bank Equity Research analyst) suggested that compare with the 30% revenue growth in last year, the chip industry faces a 25% revenue drop due to lower average selling prices for chips and the cyclical demand for semiconductors hits a lull. Seymore also mentioned that a largest average selling price drop may be waiting for the the memory segment which could cause risk to margins across the industry following 2010s record levels as well. ( KAWAMOTO,2011). However, there are some news opportunities for semiconductors players as well. One is the Smart Grid which could save resources in the busy time to balance the application amount of the power. Currently, about two-thirds of power is wasted because of the power grid aging. Inevitably, those aging power grid will be substituted by Smart Grid, which will give a new profit growth point to semiconductors industry. (Xiaona, 2010) Another significant technical innovation will benefit the semiconductors industry is the Immersion lithography which probably will drive the the lithography solution for semiconductor devices manufacturing in the following generation. Who can grasp this new technology will take a vantage point in the next decade of competition.(JVSTB, 2004) Joona: We should try to find some big picture opportunities and threats that have could have a significant impact on the industry Predictions (Next 5 years) How dynamic is the industry, stage of its life cycle? What is the likely demand situation during the next five years?(7) High inventory levels in Q4 2010 According to iSuppli the semiconductor suppliers inventories reached the highest levels in two and a half years during the fourth quarter of 2010. If the the semiconductor industry growth slows in 2011, this could bring troubles to the companies. (Stiefel, 2011) This is another example of the cyclicality and weak predictability of the industry. Joona: Could we somehow combine this with the previous section. More predictions needed. My best guess is that the industry is going to end up in a somewhat stable situation. 2010 was a boom because of the recession 2008-2009 and low inventory levels. ************** Future : http://isscc.org/doc/2010/ISSCC2010_TechTrends.pdf http://www.engadget.com/2011/02/19/intel-to-spend-5-billion-on-new-14nm-fab-in-arizona-creating-4/ Ravi: The fortunes of the semiconductor industries are ultimately tied to the demand of the end products. (Dirk Meyer, president and CEO of AMD, NDTV, interview) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpDx7LPdhqsfeature=related ÃâÃ Semiconductor design and manufacturing facilities are strategic to our nations economic growth. However, our industry is faced with fierce global competition and our policymakers and regulators must ensure that we have balanced tax, regulatory and trade policies to allow our industry to continue to flourish in the U.S. and remain Americas largest export industry, Brian Toohey, President SIA concluded in 2010. http://www.sia-online.org/cs/papers_publications/press_release_detail?pressrelease.id=1869 Intellectual property is now much more perishable than ever before and there are too many challenges to solve alone. We must recognize that alliances in the early stages of technological innovation are imperative to achieving breakthrough results that will deliver against the top and bottom line. John Warlaumont, VP of Advanced Technolog http://www.sematech.org/corporate/annual/annual09.pdf